In the Stockholm Conference on human environment, 1972, the Government of India considered appropriate to have uniform laws all over the Country for broad environmental problems endangering the health and safety of the people as well as of flora and fauna.
Soon after the Stockholm Conference, many Acts were introduced like Wildlife Act, 1972; Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act, 1974; Air (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act, 1981 etc. Within five years of Stockholm Declaration, the Constitution of India was amended to include Protection and Improvement of Environment as constitutional mandate. The protection and improvement of environment is now a fundamental duty under Constitution Act of 1976. Govt., of India has set up a National Committee on Environmental Planning and Coordination.
The Parliament of India enacted The Water (Prevention and control of Pollution), Act, 1974. This is the first specific and comprehensive legislation institutionalizing simultaneously the regulatory agencies for controlling water pollution. The State Pollution Control Boards/Pollution Control Committees came into being in terms of the Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
The Arunachal Pradesh State Pollution Control Board was constituted vide Notification dated 6th of July, 1993, by the State Government in exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of Section 4 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. And in order to carry out the purposes of the Water Act, the State Government in exercise of its power under Section 64 of the Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act, 1974, made the Arunachal Pradesh Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Rules, 2000 vide No. FOR.06/SPCB-AP/2000/19 dated the 13th of March, 2001. The Arunachal Pradesh Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Rules was amended latest on November, 2020.
The following are the functions of a State Board:
(a) Planning a comprehensive programme for prevention, control and abatement of pollution of streams and wells.
(b) Advising the State Government regarding water pollution control or location of industries.
(c) Conducting and encouraging investigations and research relating to different aspects of water pollution.
(d) To collaborate with the Central Board for training personnel for handling water pollution programmes and organising related mass education programmes.
(e) Inspecting trade effluents and waste water treatment plants.
(f) Prescribing effluent standards for the sewage and trade effluents.
(g) Evolving economical and reliable methods of disposal, treatment and reuse of waste water (in agriculture).
(h) Laying down the standards of treatment of sewage and trade effluents to be discharged into any stream.
(i) Making, varying or revoking any order for preservation or control of discharge of waste into streams and wells or construction of systems for disposal of effluents.
(j) Establishing or recognising laboratories for analysis of samples.
(k) Performing such functions as may be entrusted by Central Board or State governments.